In musical history, wind instruments have gone through a very difficult path of development. Their division corresponded to the current principle. The technique of playing almost all wind instruments was based on the essence of blowing dp higher harmonic tones. In many cases they were unable to play chromatic tones and played only natural rows of tones.
The wooden wind instruments on their way to their present shape and technical form have gone through a very complicated development. The analogy of woodwind instruments was known from ancient times in the form of double-reed shalma instruments – Greek aulos and Roman tibia. But whistle instruments were also known to Egyptians, Arabs, Chinese and Japanese.
The oldest from this group are flute instruments, especially direct instruments. The transverse flute and the Shalma instruments spread in Europe mainly due to the Arabs in the 8th century. The bilingual shalms evolved mainly into bomharts, which according to Praetoria in the 17th century was a whole group. From basshart, the bassoon gradually evolved into a bassoon in the 16th century – he was still without mechanics and from a soprano oboe. Both these instruments then formed the basis of the wind component of the Baroque orchestra together with direct flutes. Direct flutes in the 18th century gave way to transverse flutes. In addition, they were used crooked horns – krumhorn. This tool had a total of 8 holes and had a double wafer. they had a very soft tone.
Two-paying instrument was also a rocket, which was used in the 16th and 17 century. In shape, it was a low hardwood cylinder and had 10 channels, with a total of 9 holes. It was produced in 3 sizes from sound bass to discant. Bassoon dulzian pushed him out of practice.
A single-reed – even a simple reed – was created at the end of the 17th century by a clarinet.
The oldest pen instruments were made from materials provided by nature: wooden studs, animal horns and the like.
Pen instruments were divided into two groups:
- (a) corner instruments
An important landmark occurs in the 12th century, when a hunting horn was created, which has been circularly curved since the 14th century.
At the turn of the Middle Ages and modern times, the family of clinks or the cornet is strongly promoted in music practice. Initially – in the 15th century – it was a discant clink, and later added a tenor and bass clink. The lines were mainly used in the file game in conjunction with other wind instruments. They had a slightly curved cross-sectional shape forming a hexagon. They were covered with leather because they consisted of two pieces in length and the leather actually held them together. They had a metal cauldron socket, a smaller one had a cauldron cavity directly in the tool. They had a pleasant not very clear sound. He still used them in his cantatas by J.S. Bach, while in the recent past incorrectly replaced the so-called. Bach trumpet – trumpet. Cink had a range of about 2 and a half octaves.
A special species was the serpent, named after its serpentine shape. Its tone range was from D to a1. It was a double bass.
In addition to these instruments were used tube and trombones. They were used in their natural form without mechanics. Trombone was able to play chromatic tones and was one of the most perfect wind instruments. In its almost unchanged form, it has been used until now. In the 16th and 17th centuries, trombones were used – similarly to violas da gamba – mainly in temple music.
The pipe was used initially as a natural tool. Pipe valves were invented only in the 19th century. It was basically a signaling tool.
The French horn did not enter the Baroque orchestra until around 1700 for the first time in France. Initially, natural horn was used in various sizes and tunings. French horn could only play chromatic tones after the introduction of valves in the 19th century.
A small brass band – cast tools
- Tenor (Flugelhorn 2Bb)
- Alto saxophone
- Tenor saxophone
Brass music – cast instruments
- Eb clarinet
- Bb clarinet
- 1Bb Flugelhorn
- 2Bb Flugelhorn
- Trumpet obligate
- Melodic trombone
- Trombone / Basstrumpet
- Accompanying tube 1Bb / 2es
- Accompanying tube 2Bb / 2es
- Drums (set)
Brass Band – cast of instruments
The composition of individual semi-professional and amateur orchestras varies according to the orchestra’s repertoire and, in particular, to the number of musicians available to the orchestra.
- 1., 2. fFlute
- 1., (2.) Oboe
- 1., (2.) Bassoon
- Clarinet Es
- 1., 2., 3. Clarinet B
- (bass clarinet)
- 1., 2. Alt – saxophone Es
- 1., 2. Tenor – saxophone B
- (Baritone – saxophone)
- 1., 2., 3., 4. French Horn F
- 1., 2., 3. Trumpet
- 4., 5. Trumpet – accompanying
- Bass trumpet
- 1., 2., 3. Trombone
- 1., 2. Flugelhorn
- F and B Tube
Sometimes, in addition to these instruments, we can also see bass and harp in brass bands (especially symphonic ones). Everything about the cast depends only on the composer and the instrumentation he chooses for his work. The tools in brackets are used only in exceptional cases.